Andhra Pradesh Biodiversity Profile

Andhra Pradesh is known for its rich heritage in biological diversity distributed in 9 agro climatic regions. Among the flora, the state harbours a total of 2,800 taxa belonging to 1,051 genera under 185 families. This accounts for 16% of the Angiosperms known from India. Of these, 2,071 species belonging to 150 families and 796 genera are Dicotyledons and 729 species belonging to 255 genera and 35 families are Monocotyledons. Gymnosperms like Cycas sphaerica,Cycas beddomei, Gnetumula exist in the state. Cyathea gigantea (Tree Fern)is the most prominent among the 86 species in Pteridophytes (Ferns).

Among the fauna, Andhra Pradesh is rich with 108 species of mammals that include Elephant, Tiger, Leopard, Sloth Bear, Giant Squirrel, Hyena, Fox, Wild Dog, Wild Boar, Indian Bison(Gaur), Spotted Deer, Barking Deer, Black Buck, Four-horned Antelope, Blue Bull, Sambar, Mouse Deer, Honey Badger, Civets,Jungle Cats, Otter, Pangolin, Bats, Dolphins, Whales, Tree Shrew, Common Langur, Slender Loris etc.

Biodiversity Components

Key Components of Biodiversity of Andhra Pradesh

Category No. of Species / Varieties  
Total plant species 2800
Plants used in traditional medicine 1800
Rice (Vadlu) 150
Jowar (Jonnalu) 75
Bornyard millets (Odalu) 5
Italian millets (Korralu) 10
Little millets (Samalu) 7
Kodo millets (Arikelu) 10
Pearl millets (Sajjalu) 10
Proso millets (Varigelu) 2
Finger millets (Ragulu) 7
Gingelly (Nuvvulu) 15
Chickpea (Sanagalu) 8
Green Gram (Pesalu) 8
Black Gram (Minumulu) 10
Cowpea (Alasandalu) 10
Pigeon Pea (Kandulu) 15
Horse Gram (Ulavalu) 6
Annelids 163
Arthropods 1337
Mollusks 480
Marine & Estuarine fish 600
Freshwater fish 180
Amphibians 23
Reptiles 103
Birds 486
Mammals 108
Native breeds of live stock 5

Andhra Pradesh is a prominent centre of diversity for cultivated crop plants having more than 33 wild ancestors and close relatives of cultivated plants still growing under natural conditions.

Biodiversity Heritage Sites

Biodiversity Heritage Sites are well defined areas that are unique ecologically fragile ecosystems - terrestrial,fresh water or marine having rich biodiversity comprising any one or more of the components such as

  • Species richness
  • High endemism
  • Rare, endemic and threatened species
  • Keystone species
  • Species of evolutionary significance
  • Wild ancestors of domestic / cultivated species or land races or their varieties
  • Areas of fossil beds having cultural, ethical or aesthetic values.

The declaration of biodiversity heritage sites will ensure bringing home the values and ethics in the society thereby protecting the environment and ensuring availability of bioresources for the present and future generations.

The state biodiversity board, after due consultation with the local bodies and other stakeholders shall recommend the state government for setting up of biodiversity heritage sites.

The state government in turn will notify the biodiversity heritage sites after consultation with the central government.